Match each underlined word in the following passage
with a suitable definition from the list give below. Write the word
(or groups of words) you choose for each item in the table provided.
THE AMERICAN FIELD SERVICE
The American Field Service is a(1) private
organization designed to promote international friendship and understanding.
It sponsors an international educational exchange program from senior
high school students of various countries to study the culture and
traditions of the United States. In return, American students live
and study abroad. Without either religious or political (2) affiliations,
the organization is supported through contributions from members,
both private individuals and groups, either in the front of financial
aid or donated facilities.
The AFS, headquartered in New York, has more than
sixty (3) agencies overseas. Its
activities in Thailand began in 1961 when a group of fourteen Thai
high school students spent one year in the U.S. Since then 1,400
Thai students have been awarded AFS grants and about 1,000 American
students have come to Thailand under the program.
American awardees are classified into two (4) categories:
those who spend one year attending the 11th or 12th grades in a
Thai secondary school, and those who stay in Thailand about ten
weeks during their summer vacation. They all stay with Thai families
who volunteer to (5) care for them
and who have children of about the same age. While the experience
of living overseas demands, adjustment, most (6) grantees
return home with an awareness and appreciation of a foreign culture
far beyond that obtained on briefer visits.
AFS recently became AFS International. As a result,
not all Thai students go to the U.S., but some go to eight other
countries in Europe and Asia. Also not all AFS students now coming
to Thailand are American.
List of possible definitions
Non - Governmental Organization
Word from Passage
Read the following passage and look at the table
and diagram which follow it. Complete the table by writing labels
for the diagram.
Alternative energy sources are becoming increasingly
attractive as the energy crisis becomes more severe. Solar heating
systems, which use the sun's radiation as a source of energy, are
a promising alternative energy source. Nuclear power plants are
already in operation in several parts of the country. Government
and private industry are even investigating the possibility of capturing
the power of ocean waves and tides for conversion into usable energy.
Coal is once again becoming an acceptable fuel as the nation searches
for solutions to the energy shortage. Even garbage is seen as a
potential source of energy. In some communities, garbage is burned
to heat buildings and light city streets.
Use the information in the following text to answer
the questions which follow it. Write your answers in the space provided.
GOODNESS OF HUMANITY
The future cannot be better if people in general
are not fundamentally good and improvable. Americans assume that
human nature is basically good, not basically evil. Foreign visitors
will see them doing many things that are based on the assumption
that people are good and can make themselves better. Some examples:
Getting more education or training.
Formal education is not just for young people, but for everyone.
Education institutions offer "extension classes," night classes,
correspondence courses, and television courses so that people who
have full-time jobs or who live far from a college or university
have the opportunity to get more education. Many post-secondary
students are adults who seek to "improve themselves" by learning
"Non-formal" educational opportunities in the form
of "workshops," seminars, or training programs are widely available.
Through them people can learn about a huge array of topics, from
being a better parent to investing money more wisely to behaving
Rehabilitation. Except in extreme cases where it
would clearly be futile. efforts are made to rehabilitate people
who have lost some physical capacity as a result of injury or illness.
A person who "learned to walk again" after a debilitating accident
is widely admired.
Rehabilitation is not just for the physically infirm,
but for those who have failed socially as well. Jails, prisons,
and detention centers are intended as much to train inmates to be
socially useful as they are to punish them. A widespread (but not
universally-held) assumption is that people who violate the law
do so more because of adverse environmental conditions such as poverty
than because they themselves are evil individuals.
Belief in democratic government. We have already
discussed some of the assumptions that underlie the American belief
that a democratic form of government is best - assumptions about
individualism, freedom, and equality. Another assumption is that
people can make life better for themselves and others through the
actions of governments they choose.
Voluntarism. It is not just through the actions
of government or other formal bodies that life can be improved,
but through the actions of citizen volunteers as well. Many foreign
visitors are awed by the array of activities Americans support on
a voluntary basis : parent-teacher organizations in elementary and
secondary school, community "service clubs" that raise money for
worthy causes, organizations of families that play host to foreign
students, "clean-up, paint-up, fix-up" campaigns to beautify communities,
organizations working to preserve wilderness areas, and on and on.
Education campaigns. When Americans perceive a
social problem they are likely (often on a voluntary basis) to establish
an "educational campaign" to "make the public aware" of the dangers
of something and induce people to take preventative or corrective
action. Thus there are campaigns concerning smoking, drugs, alcohol,
child abuse, and many specific diseases.
Self-improvement. Americans assume themselves to
be improvable. We have already mentioned their participation in
various educational and training programs. Mention should also be
made of the array of "how-to" books Americans buy, and the number
of group activities they join in order to make themselves "better."
Through things they read or group they join Americans can stop smoking,
stop drinking alcohol, lose weight, get into better physical condition,
manage their time more effectively, manage their money more effectively,
become better at their jobs, and improve themselves in countless
"Where there's a will, there's a way," the Americans
say. People who want to make things better can do so if only they
have a strong enough motivation.
1. How do Americans regard human nature? ______________________________________________________________________
2. Generally speaking, in what ways can one improve oneself as an
3. What is the purpose of an 'educational campaign'?
4. What is the overall deciding factor necessary for self-improvement?
Read the following passage and then circle the best
alternative for each question.
1. Being a Learner
Being aware of good study habits, and putting them
into practice, is crucial factor in the determination of your success.
Every tertiary student should aim to become a conscious, independent
Exactly what does this mean for you? And how to
you go about achieving this ideal state?
Quite simply, it means that you are in control of
actively planning your learning situation.
You can take marvelous notes, read your handouts
and attend every lecture, but all of this will amount to very little
unless you become an organised student.
You will benefit greatly from following these steps:
study in periods of between 40-60 minutes. After each period of
study, have a short break in which you do something you enjoy -
watch TV; listen to music.
Set your self a definite task or goal before each
session. Be lively in your learning. Repeat points aloud, make notes,
highlight important points, summarise main ideas and concentrate
on your goals.
Spend the last few minutes of your study time typing
to recall the main issues of the topic. This recall is very important
and needs to be repeated at later sessions. Try to over learn your
material. Even if you feel sure you know everything you need to
know about a topic and you can recall this knowledge, continue to
go over and over and it in subsequent sessions.
Now read the following anecdote about one successful
2. Happy Ending # 1: The
boy who didn't drop his bundle
Timothy did all the right things. He submitted his
Prehistory assignments on time, went to classes religiously, took
notes and read widely. In fact, he was a lecturer's delight.
He started his exam preparation a good month before
the semester ended and had done a preliminary review of all his
subjects by then. During swot vac he rewrote, recited and revised
- working through all the memory tricks for recall during his exams.
Lucky he did.
Another student also recognised his talent for
organised study and quality work. On Thursday of swot week Timothy
decided to have a coffee in the library coffee shop. He left his
bags outside, had his vienna, and emerged ready for another couple
of hours of study. No bag! Panic, fright, horror, shock. Not daunted
he sat down right there and then and recreated all his condensed
notes from memory. What he did was test his memory under highly
stressful conditions similar to exam conditions. He was able to
reconstruct nearly all his notes and only had to check references
wherever there were small gaps. He passed with two A's a B and a
The moral: Studying consistently
will always stand you in good stead in an emergency.
And now?: He's doing Honours and
looks set to continue into post-graduate study.
1. Article no. 1 "Being a learner" would normally
be found in
a. a newspaper.
b. a study skills book.
c. a novel.
d. a brochure.
2. The aim of the first article is to
a. give advice especially to university students
on building up good
study habits and becoming an independent learner.
b. help secondary school pupils to become successful in their
c. give advice to any reader who are interested in becoming successful
d. give advice to university lecturers on independent teaching
3. Which of the following steps is a student not
advised to follow?
a. Students should have an intermission between
b. Students who know a lot about a topic should not go over it
c. It is important to memorize the main points of the topic st
the end of the study time.
d. Students should be lively in their learning and pay attention
to their goals.
4. What does the title of the anecdote 'The boy
who didn't drop his bundle' mean?
a. The boy who still carries his package
b. The boy who is greedy.
c. The boy who didn't give up
d. The boy who didn't study well
5. Timothy's case is an example of a student who
a. can't control himself very well in times of
b. has very good study habits and is organized.
c. always reads a lot.
d. is very awkward and clumsy.
6. What do you think the expression
'stand you in good stead' taken from the moral of this
a. To be certain
b. To be risky
c. To be dangerous
d. To be useful
Read the following passage and then circle best
alternative for each question.
|Pottery is the name
given to all kinds of pots and utensils made from clay and other
minerals when they have been 'fired', that is, hardened by heat
in the potter's kiln. Articles made of pottery include plates,
cups and saucers, cooking dishes, wall and floor tiles, chemical
storage jars, bathroom fittings, filters, drain pipes, electrical
insulators and ornaments for the home.
Pottery is one of the oldest crafts, which
began to be practised as soon as man learned to control fire,
and long before the smelting of metals. It enabled him from
very early times to make vessels for storing and cooking food,
for carrying water, and for ritual burial purposes. Early
vessels were shaped by hand and probably 'fired' in a big
bonfire by covering them over with dried grass and dead branches,
which were then set
A great advance in pottery followed the invention
of the potter's wheel and the kiln. It is not for certain
known where the potter's wheel was first used, but it is thought
that by about 3500 B.C. potters in Central Asia were using
some kind of wheel. From there its use spread west and est
to Egypt, Crete, China- and then to Ancient Greece and Rome.
At first the wheel was nothing more than a
small disc, turned on a pivot by hand, but later i t was improved
by raising it and providing it with a larger circular platform
near the groundas well which could be rotated by the potter
with his feet. Such a wheel was probably in use in Egypt by
about 200 B.C., though this is only conjecture; but it was
certainly still in use in Europe at the beginning of the nineteenth
century. In the eighteenth
|century, however, the potter's
wheel was improved so that it could be worked by a
treadle, or turned by as assistant. Modern potter's wheels are
There are three principal
ways articles may be made of pottery. They may be simply shaped
by hand. They may be thrown on the potter's wheel and shaped
against the spin with the fingers or some scraping tool. Thirdly,
the wet clay may be put in a pre-
shaped 'form' of plaster-of-Paris.
After the pots have been made, they are slowly
baked in the kiln. This produces chemical changes in the clay
which have a hardening effect. The time taken for firing pottery
varies with the size of the kiln and the type of clay. It
can take anything from 24 hours to as long as 2 weeks
If pottery is to hold water, it must be 'glazed',
since clay is porous by nature.Glaze consists of the raw materials
of glass, ground together and mixed with water to a creamy
consistency. The glaze is sprayed on to the pot which is then
heated in the kiln again until it is, in effect, covered with
a very thin layer of glass. This seals the pores in the clay
and gives us the versatile table and oven dishes we know so
1. Pottery is the name given to
a. all kinds of utensils.
b. all kinds of pots and utensils.
c. domestic fittings and table dishes.
d. things made of baked clay or other minerals.
2. The early making of pottery ..........
a. pre-dated the discovery of fire
b. post-dated the smelting of metals.
c. was dependent of the use of fire.
d. avoided the need for storing and treating food.
3. A foot-operated potter's wheel was in use in
a. certainly by 2000 B.C.
b. probably by the beginning of the nineteenth century.
c. for a short period in the second century A.D.
d. perhaps around 200 B.C.
4. The three ways of making pottery articles are
a. spinning, moulding and throwing.
b. 'throwing', hand shaping and on a wheel
c. hand shaping, 'throwing' on a wheel, and moulding in a 'form'
d. are becoming increasingly sophisticated.
5. The time taken for firing pottery varies according
a. the type of clay the kiln is made of.
b. the size of the pot.
c. the type of kiln the pottery is baked in.
d. atmospheric conditions.
6. The glaze on a pottery vessel ..........
a. keeps the clay soft.
b. prevents the clay from becoming porous.
c. prevents the clay from allowing moisture to pass through its
d. makes it more attractive to look at.